Report forms for visual observations of Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are available for download from this page. These forms have been prepared by Paul G. Abel and David Gray.

Details on how to complete the forms is also given below.

A number of report forms are available for Saturn, with each form showing an outline of Saturn for a differing ring tilt as seen from the Earth. The ring tilt is designated by the parameter B. Positive values of B indicate that the  north face of the rings is on view. Negative values of B indicate that the south face of the rings is on view. The forms are provide in one degree increments of B. Values of B can be found in the BAA handbook, from the WinJupos software ( or other astronomy guides.  


Saturn report forms are currently available for  the ring tilts appropriate for the2006 /2007 and  2007/2008 apparitions. Forms covering other ring tilts will be added later.

Please click on the appropriate links below for the form with the required ring tilt.

B = -17 degrees B = - 16 degrees B = -15 degrees B = -14 degrees B = -13 degrees
B = -12 degrees B = -11 degrees B = -10 degrees B = -9 degrees B = -8 degrees
B = -7 degrees B = -6 degrees B = -5 degrees B = -4 degrees B = -3 degrees
B = -2 degrees B = -1 degree B = 0 degrees B = 1 degree B = 2 degrees
B = 3 degrees B = 4 degrees B = 5 degrees B = 6 degrees B = 7 degrees
B = 8 degrees B = 9 degrees B = 10 degrees B = 11 degrees B = 12 degrees
B = 13 degrees B = 14 degrees B = 15 degrees B = 16 degrees B = 17 degrees
B = 18 degrees B = 19 degrees B = 20 degrees B = 21 degrees B = 22 degrees
B = 23 degrees B = 24 degrees B = 25 degrees B = 26 degrees B = 27 degrees
B = 28 degrees


Visual report forms for each of these two planet are provided here. However due to their bland appearance and small angular sizes, the detection of detail on these planets is likely to be difficult even with large apertures.

For Uranus, please click here.   For Neptune, please click here.


How to Complete the Saturn Forms

The following text gives details on how to complete the forms. An example of a completed form can be seen by clicking here (under construction).

Choose a form appropriate to the ring tilt as seen from earth.

Date: Enter as Year / Month/ Day, e.g. 2007 August 30. If the observation spans midnight of e.g. August 30 and 31, this may be entered as 2007 August 30/31.

Start UT. End UT: Start and end times of the observation in Universal Time.

Observer: The name of the observer

Location: The location of the observer. E.g. village/town/city and country.

Instrument: enter the type of instrument, its aperture (in mm)  and focal ratio. Any filters used may be entered here.

The following abbreviations may be used.

Refr -  refractor. Refl -  Newtonian reflector. Cass -  Cassegrain reflector. SCT - Schmidt Cassegrain. Mak -  Maksutov.

 Seeing: This is usually assessed on the Antoniadi scale, i.e.

I = Perfect seeing, without a quiver in the image.

II = Slight undulations in the image, with moments of calm lasting several seconds.

III = Moderate seeing, with large tremors

IV = Poor seeing , with constant troublesome undulations.

V = Very bad seeing, scarcely allowing the making of a rough sketch.

Please indicate is an alternative scale is used. The sky transparency (how clear the air is)  may also be entered here.

Disk Drawing: A sketch of the observed features may be made  using outline on the report form. The form shows the outline of Ring C which can be 'blacked in' if not observed. Enter the mid point time for the completion of the drawing and the seeing . Also enter the Central Meridian longitudes (CM1, CM 2 & CM3) for the mid point time the drawing drawing. Saturn has 3 longitude systems (please see the BAA Handbook for definitions). Central Meridian values for the time of the  drawing may be derived from the tables given in  the BAA handbook, from the WinJupos software ( or other astronomy guides.

Comments: A space is provided for comments notes or colour estimates.

Intensity Estimates: Visual intensity estimates may be made of the  rings and planetary features using the scale from 0 to 10 where 0 is brilliant white and 10 is the blackness of a dark sky or deep black shadow. Intensity 1 is usually the brightness of the outer part of Ring B.    Half or quarter values may be used if desired. A simple outline of the  features observed can be made on the intensity blank and the  intensities then marked on this outline sketch. Alternatively, intensities may be tabulated on the reverse of the form. Note colour filters used (if any)

However all intensity observations should be recorded on a spreadsheet (Excel preferred) which aids the analysis. Please click here for the format (under construction). Please click here for the belt / zone nomenclature (under construction). For those observers not having a PC /spreadsheets please click here (under construction) for the intensity report form. Please submit the completed intensity forms at the end of each apparition.

 Orientation: Please enter the North (N) and South (S) Directions and the preceding (p) and following (f) senses. This can be done either against the white tick marks on the master tick marks on the master drawing or against the orientation arrows shown in the  intensity box. 

How to Complete the Uranus and Neptune Forms

Under Construction

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